Yes, I realize this is a beginning digital logic concept, but I need somewhere to write this so I don’t forget again.

### Unsigned Integer to Binary and Back

- You are given a number: 25382

Take the modulo of it to test if it is even or odd: 25382 % 2 = 0 <= ???? ???? ???? ???0 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 25382 / 2 = 12691

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 12691 % 2 = 1 <= ???? ???? ???? ??10 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 12691 / 2 = 6345

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 6345 % 2 = 1 <= ???? ???? ???? ?110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 6345 / 2 = 3172

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 3172 % 2 = 0 <= ???? ???? ???? 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 3172 / 2 = 1586

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 1586 % 2 = 0 <= ???? ???? ???0 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 1586 / 2 = 793

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 793 % 2 = 1 <= ???? ???? ??10 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 793 / 2 = 396

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 396 % 2 = 0 <= ???? ???? ?010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 396 / 2 = 198

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 198 % 2 = 0 <= ???? ???? 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 198 / 2 = 99

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 99 % 2 = 1 <= ???? ???1 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 99 / 2 = 49

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 49 % 2 = 1 <= ???? ??11 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 49 / 2 = 24

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 24 % 2 = 0 <= ???? ?011 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 24 / 2 = 12

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 12 % 2 = 0 <= ???? 0011 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 12 / 2 = 6

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 6 % 2 = 0 <= ???0 0011 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 6 / 2 = 3

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 3 % 2 = 1 <= ??10 0011 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 3 / 2 = 1

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 1 % 2 = 1 <= ?110 0011 0010 0110 - Divide by two to get a new integer: 1 / 2 = 0

Take the modulo of the new number to test if it is even or odd: 0 % 2 = 0 <= 0110 0011 0010 0110

**25382 = 0110 0011 0010 0110**

With a bit of programming, this can be highly consolidated:

int decVal = 25382; char binVal[16]; printf("Integer: = Binary: "); for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++) { binVal[i] = (decVal % 2); decVal /= 2; printf("%d", binVal[i]); }

Note however that the binary value’s lowest-order bit is expressed on the right-hand side whereas an array’s lowest-order element is expressed on the left-hand side. This will result in the direct output of the array being displayed as the reverse of the binary string it represents.

binInt = 0110001100100110; // = B15 B14 B13 ... B2 B1 B0; binVal[16] = {0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0}; // = {I0, I1, I2, ... , I13, I14, I15};

Thus, we will need to parse through the array in reverse order when using its values to either print to the standard output or convert back into the regular integer:

// binVal is calculated from for loop above. // binVal[16] = {0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0}; int decVal; printf("Binary String: "); for (int i = 0; i < 16; i++) { if (binVal[16-(i+1)] == 1) { decVal += pow(2,i); } printf("%d",binVal[16-(i+1)]); } printf(" = Integer: %d",decVal);